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Citing Your Sources

Why cite your sources?

  • To give credit to authors/researchers/writers and ideas that are not your own
  • Using high quality sources helps support your argument
  • To allow readers/researchers to locate the sources you used
  • To maintain academic integrity and avoid academic dishonesty and plagiarism

When in doubt, cite!

  • If you read it and use the idea or a quote, cite it
  • If it is in a research paper, cite it
  • If it is in a reflection paper, cite it
  • If you are using past research, cite it

When in doubt, cite!

Citing properly requires:

1. An in-text citation

When you use the work of another person, you must make note of this in the text. Do this by including an in-text citation which gives a brief reference and helps the reader locate the full citation that you'll include as part of your References list.

2. A list of works referenced

The last page of your paper is typically a list of resources you used/utilized/consulted.

What is Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)?

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), currently in its 17th edition, was developed by the University of Chicago Press and debuted in 1906. It is a popular style manual for social sciences and history. 

CMS is unique in that it provides two options for the in-text citing of sources: Notes & Bibliography style and Author-Date style. 

1. In Notes & Bibliography style, a source is indicated by a superscripted note number, which corresponds to a full citation either at the bottom of the page (as a footnote) or at the end of the main text (as an endnote). All sources are then listed in the Bibliography at the end of the text.

2. In Author-Date style, the source is indicated parenthetically with the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication, along with page numbers, as applicable. All sources are then listed in the Bibliography at the end of the text.

CMS Examples

Template: AuthorLastName, FirstName. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Date): Page range for article, DOI (if available).

(List all author names for entries with one to ten authors. For works with more than ten authors, list the first seven names, followed by et al.

Journal article (with DOI): Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. "Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health." European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 1 (2010): 813-822, doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

Journal article (without DOI): MacDonald, Susan Peck. "The Erasure of Language." College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

Template: AuthorLastName, FirstName. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

One author: Woodham Smith, Cecil. The Great Hunger: Ireland 1845-1849. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.

Multiple authors: Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.

(List all author names for entries with one to ten authors. For works with more than ten authors, list the first seven names, followed by et al.

Chapter in an edited book: Carter, Philip. "James Boswell's Manliness." In English Masculinities, 1660-1800, edited by Tim Hitchcock and Michelle Cohen, 111-130. London: Longman, 1999.

Template: AuthorLastName, First Name. "Article/post title." Source, Publication or access date. URL.

(If an author's name is not listed, list the organization or website title.)

Article on a website: Google. "Privacy Policy." Privacy & Terms. Accessed August 24, 2020.

Online video: Bouman, Katie. "How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole." Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51.

Social media post: Chicago Manual of Style. "Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993." Facebook, April 17, 2015.

(In general, social media citations do not typically need to be included in the bibliography. If a title is not present, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post.)

Need More Information?

See our Citation Styles guide to learn more about citing your sources.