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Always consult your syllabus and assignment sheets. They may differ from information you see here (or anywhere else) on citing your sources and formatting your paper!

What is Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)?

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), currently in its 17th edition, was developed by the University of Chicago Press and debuted in 1906. It is a popular style manual for social sciences and history. 

CMS is unique in that it provides two options for the in-text citing of sources: Notes & Bibliography style and Author-Date style. 

1. In Notes & Bibliography style, a source is indicated by a superscripted note number, which corresponds to a full citation either at the bottom of the page (as a footnote) or at the end of the main text (as an endnote). All sources are then listed in the Bibliography at the end of the text.

2. In Author-Date style, the source is indicated parenthetically with the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication, along with page numbers, as applicable. All sources are then listed in the Bibliography at the end of the text.

CMS Examples

Template: AuthorLastName, FirstName. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.


One author: Woodham Smith, Cecil. The Great Hunger: Ireland 1845-1849. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.

Multiple authors: Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.

(List all author names for entries with one to ten authors. For works with more than ten authors, list the first seven names, followed by et al.

Chapter in an edited book: Carter, Philip. "James Boswell's Manliness." In English Masculinities, 1660-1800, edited by Tim Hitchcock and Michelle Cohen, 111-130. London: Longman, 1999.

Template: AuthorLastName, FirstName. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Date): Page range for article, DOI (if available).

(List all author names for entries with one to ten authors. For works with more than ten authors, list the first seven names, followed by et al.


Journal article (with DOI): Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. "Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health." European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 1 (2010): 813-822, doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

Journal article (without DOI): MacDonald, Susan Peck. "The Erasure of Language." College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

Template: AuthorLastName, First Name. "Article/post title." Source, Publication or access date. URL.

(If an author's name is not listed, list the organization or website title.)


Article on a website: Google. "Privacy Policy." Privacy & Terms. Accessed August 24, 2020. https://policies.google.com/privacy

Online video: Bouman, Katie. "How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole." Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51.

Social media post: Chicago Manual of Style. "Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993." Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

(In general, social media citations do not typically need to be included in the bibliography. If a title is not present, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post.)

Citing Sources - In Text (Notes-Bibliography Style)

In the more commonly used form of Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), the Notes & Bibliography style, sources are indicated by superscripted note numbers, which correspond to a full citation either at the bottom of the page (as a footnote) or at the end of the main text (as an endnote).

There are three different types of citation notes: full, short, and shorter. When citing a source multiple times, provide the full citation in the first instance, then provide a shortened citation. Short notes include the author(s) last name(s), a shortened version of the title of the book/article, and page number(s). Shorter notes just include the author(s) last name(s) and page number(s).

All citations are included in the bibliography at the end of the text.

Previous editions of CMOS encouraged using the abbreviation ibid. to indicate a work cited in the note immediately preceding. The most recent edition of CMOS discourages this in favor of continuing using shortened citations omitting the work’s title

The following are examples of the formatting of different kinds of sources:

Print book:

1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

3. Smith, Swing Time, 320.

4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.

Journal articles:

1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.

2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

3. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.

4. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.

Repeated sources:

1. Toni Morrison, Beloved (New York: Vintage, 2004), 3. Full citation on first appearance.
2. Morrison, 18. Shorter citation indicating continued use of Beloved.
3. Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon (New York: Vintage, 2004), 45. Full citation on first appearance.
4. Morrison, 47. Shorter citation indicating continued use of Song of Solomon.
5. Morrison, Beloved, 52.  Short citation reintroducing Beloved.

 

Citing Sources - Bibliography

The bibliography is located at the end of the text. It includes all sources cited in the text, and sometimes includes sources consulted but not cited.

Different types of sources are formatted slightly differently, but all are arranged alphabetically by author's (or editor's, if no author is listed) last name. If no author or editor is listed for the source, the title of the source may be used.

All entries include the author(s) (along with any editor, compiler, translator, etc), title, and publication information.

Print Books

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.

List all author names for entries with one to ten authors. For more than ten authors, list the first seven names, followed by et al.

Articles in Scholarly Journals

MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

When accessed online, use the doi (or a permalink, if doi is unavailable).

Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

Test Your Knowledge!

Bibliography

"The Chicago Manual of Style Online," University of Chicago, accessed November 26, 2019, https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html

"Chicago Notes & Bibliography / Turabian: Essential Rules," Citation Guide, NPS Dudley Knox Library, updated November 21, 2019, https://libguides.nps.edu/citation/chicago-nb-rules