AICPA: American Institute of Certified Public Accountants issues auditing and other standards for the profession, most particularly on the Statments of Auditing Standards.
FASAB: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board
FASB: The Financial Accounting Standards Board sets authoritative standards for the US private sector.
GASB: The Governmental Accounting Standards Board sets authoritative standards for US government accounting
IMA: Institute of Management Accountants publishes Statements on Management Accounting. It provides certification of CMA.
PCAOB: Public Company Accounting Oversight Board was created by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and establishes auditing and related attestation, quality control, ethics, and independence standards and rules to be used by registered public accounting firms. Standards are available online.
SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission administers and enforces the securities laws of the United States including issuing rules and releases regulating financial reporting of public companies. EDGAR documents available at this site.
Industrial Statistics Portal from the Census Bureau
Industry and Analysis from the International Trade Administration
Annual Survey of Manufactures from the Census Bureau